Oncological and safety profiles in patients undergoing simultaneous TURB and TURP

AbstractObjectives

Evidence on the outcomes of simultaneous transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) for bladder cancer and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for obstructive benign prostatic hyperplasia is limited and contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the oncological impact and adverse events of performing simultaneous TURB and TURP.

Materials and Methods

Patients from twelve European hospitals treated with either TURB alone or simultaneous TURB and TURP (TURB+TURP) were retrospectively analyzed. A propensity-score matching (PSM) 1:1 was performed with patients from the TURB+TURP group matched to TURB-alone patients. Associations between surgery approach with recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free (PFS) survivals were assessed in Cox regression models before and after PSM. We performed a subgroup analysis in patients with risk factors for recurrence (multifocality and/or tumor size >3cm).

Results

A total of 762 men were included, among whom, 76% (n=581) underwent a TURB-alone and 24% (n=181) a TURB+TURP. There was no difference in terms of tumor characteristics between the groups. We observed comparable length of stay as well as complication rates including major complications (Clavien-Dindo grade ??3) for the TURB alone versus TURB+TURP groups, while the latest led to longer operative time (p<0.001).

During a median follow-up of 44 months, there were more recurrences in the TURB-alone (47%) compared to the TURB+TURP group (28%; p<0.001). Interestingly, there were more recurrences at the bladder neck/prostatic fossa in the TURB-alone group (55% vs. 3%; p<0.001). TURB+TURP procedures were associated with improved RFS (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.29-0.53, p<0.001), but not PFS (HR 1.63, 95% CI 0.90-2.98, p=0.11). Within the PSM cohort of 254 patients, the simultaneous TURB+TURP was still associated with improved RFS (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.49, p<0.001). This was also true in the subgroup of 380 patients with recurrence risk factors (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.28-0.62, p<0.001).

Conclusion

In our contemporary cohort, simultaneous TURB and TURP seems to be oncologically safe option that may, even, improve RFS by potentially preventing disease recurrence at the bladder neck and in the prostatic fossa.