Biomarkers in Testicular Cancer

Biomarkers play a key role in patients with testicular germ cell tumors in a variety of clinical contexts, including initial diagnosis, prognostication, monitoring treatment response, and posttreatment surveillance. Although the classic serum tumor markers for testicular germ cell tumors are essential for clinical management, the low sensitivity (particularly for seminoma and teratoma) and potential for false positives has spurred novel biomarker discovery and validation efforts. Here, we review the current state of serum-based biomarkers for testicular germ cell tumors, with a focus on the classic serum tumor markers and emerging class of microRNA markers.