Current and Future Biomarkers in the Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma biomarkers include serum, urine, liquid, and tissue biomarkers. There is currently an ongoing search for predictive biomarkers in the detection, recurrence, and treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Emerging signatures in the transcriptomic and translational biomarker space seem promising, although additional work is needed to validate candidates in a larger and more generalizable patient population.