Targeted Molecular Imaging as a Biomarker in Urologic Oncology

Urologic malignancies constitute a large portion of annually diagnosed cancers. Timely diagnosis, accurate staging, and assessment of tumor heterogeneity are essential to devising the best treatment strategy for individual patients. The high sensitivity of molecular imaging allows for early and sensitive detection of lesions that were not readily detectable using conventional imaging techniques. Moreover, molecular imaging enables the interrogation of molecular processes used in targeted cancer therapies and predicts cancer response to treatment. Here we review the current advancements in molecular imaging of urologic cancers, including prostatic, vesical, renal testicular, and ureteral cancers.